The high cost of homeland security
On Oct. 18, President Bush signed the Homeland Security Appropriations Act for fiscal year 2005, providing $28.9 billion in net discretionary spending for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). This was a 6.6% ($1.8 billion) increase over the prior year.
DHS will also receive funding from what it describes as "mandatory and fee-funded programs," which will bring the total available funds to $40.7 billion. Arguably, the $11.8 billion difference between available funds and budget allocation is the cost that will be funded by the private sector.
Here's how some of the appropriations break down:
• Funding for the Container Security Initiative (CSI) has increased by $25 million over the current $101 million.
• The United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (USVISIT) will receive $340 million in 2005, up $12 million over fiscal 2004.
• Aerial surveillance and sensor technology includes $64.2 million for U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to enhance land-based detection and monitoring of movement between ports, $28 million for increased patrol flight hours and $12.5 million for long-range radar operations.
• A further $80 million is allocated for the next generation of radiation detection monitors for ports.
• The Act increases funding for CBP targeting systems by $20.6 million for staffing and technology.
• The Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) will receive an increase of $15.2 million in the appropriation.
• The U.S. Coast Guard's budget will increase 9% to $6.3 billion in 2005, including over $100 million to support implementation of the Maritime Transportation Security Act.
• Project BioShield will receive $2.5 billion in funding for development and prepurchase of necessary medical countermeasures against weapons of mass destruction and improved bio-surveillance.
• $894 million was appropriated for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection (IAIP) to enhance capabilities to receive intelligence and information from an expanded set of sources.
• $5.1 billion is included for the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) for aviation security, including aviation security fees.
• Explosive detection systems are part of the $475 million for baggage screening.
• Air cargo security is covered by a $115 million allocation to continue research and deployment of screening technology and to increase air cargo inspectors.
• The Federal Air Marshal Service has been moved to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and will receive $663 million.
• The DHS Science and Technology directorate will receive $61 million to accelerate development of effective technologies to counter the threat of portable anti-aircraft missiles.
• State and local assistance programs will receive $4 billion in funding.
• Immigration security and enforcement's funding will increase by $179 million.
• $160 million in total resources have been allocated to reduce the immigration backlog.
• The Emergency Preparedness and Response Directorate will get $3.1 billion.
• The National Incident Management System (NIMS) will receive $15 million